Somewhere right now, a mother is singing to her newborn daughter. A little boy is humming softly to himself as he plays with his toys. A grandmother is sharing the sounds of her native language with her grandchild through songs her mother taught to her. Two children are playing a clapping game on the playground and several others are chanting schoolyard rhymes.
This soundtrack of early childhood could be happening in any country, any neighborhood. Music is a universal part of childhood because music provides children the opportunity to practice things essential to the human experience: movement, communication, imagination, belonging, togetherness, and play.
Our previous blog post (Part 1) discussed the physical and cognitive benefits of music making and music therapy in early childhood. This month, we will explore the social and emotional development benefits of music in supporting healthy children and families.
Developing secure, trusting relationships with others is one of the primary tasks of early childhood. Caregivers in all cultures sing to their infants, and babies are impressively sophisticated listeners. Infants are able to detect rhythms and recognize melodies heard in the womb. Some studies even suggest that babies can detect various pitches and discriminate between melodies better than adults!
Lullabies are a special type of singing that supports bonding and social development. Scores of research studies demonstrate the measurable benefits of lullabies on both mother and baby, including improved bonding, decreased crying episodes, and decreased maternal stress. We think that lullabies evolved as a way to signal to infants that they are safe and well cared for. When directed towards infants, our singing takes on a different sound quality than we use with adults, which lets them know we are attending to them.
A fascinating study conducted at the University of Toronto demonstrates the power of music to foster social connections. Fourteen-month-old babies were placed in front-facing carriers while being bounced to the Beatles hit, “Twist and Shout.” A stranger would stand in front of them and either bounce with the baby in time to the music, or would bounce in a way that was out of synch with the baby and music. After the song was over, these strangers would play with the babies. Babies who bounced in sync with their partners were more likely to help their partner (for example, hand them a ball that they were reaching for), than those who didn’t. Further studies demonstrated that this effect was not replicated when babies were bounced to nature sounds, concluding that it was the music that supported this prosocial behavior. (Read more about this study)
Music is, at its essence, structured sound. Rhythms, key, and the organization of verse and chorus are structures within which we apply rules and routines. Social development also involves learning the structures, rules and routines that facilitate positive engagement with others. It is the work of children to learn the social rules of playing together, such as taking turns, sharing, responding, leading and following, and role-playing. Parents, teachers, and therapists can help children practice these social norms through musical games and interventions.
Early childhood is full of emotions (and parents know, these emotions can change in an instant!). Fear, surprise, delight, disgust, excitement, disappointment, and joy can all occur on a daily basis. Learning how to understand, express, and manage these emotions is a critical part of growing up. Self regulation is “the ability to manage one’s emotions and behaviors in accordance with the demands of a situation,” and is highly correlated with a child’s later mental health and educational success.
Infants are an empty canvas and only just becoming aware of their surroundings. It is amazing to see them suckle and how rhythmic it is – we are wired for rhythm. Emotionally, infants in their first 6 months are able to recognize their main caregiver and familiar objects. As they develop emotionally and bond with their caregiver/parent, they cry when they are parted. The emotional journey through infancy is about recognizing and imitating what they see and experience around them. They imitate facial expressions as a precursor to feeling those emotions demonstrated through the face.
Babies are very dependent on their caregivers, and securing that bond is the primary task of infancy. A favorite song or lullaby sung by a caregiver helps to increase this bond. Holding and rocking a child secures it further. As this bond develops, babies will recognize their caregiver’s voice and know it as a place of comfort and safety.
Sharing music with babies is not only about lullabies. Playful, interactive songs support early communication and the expression of joy. Musical play that is responsive to baby’s cues helps support early emotional regulation. You can do this by mirroring facial expressions, pitch, and the energy level of your baby. Songs related to transitions are also helpful to emotional development. Songs for riding in the car, bath songs, and eating songs are all developmentally important ways to interact with babies using music.
Many early childhood songs provide opportunities to explore emotions and practice regulating those feelings. Expectation and release are key components in most music. Using both musical elements and lyrics, songs like “This Little Piggy,” “All the Little Fishies,” and “Pop Goes the Weasel” build up suspense and then practice releasing that tension (POP! Goes the weasel!). These types of songs help children and parents explore the balance between what is exciting and fun, and what is scary or overwhelming. Other songs and musical games explore waiting, switching between fast and slow, or require careful listening. All of these are enjoyable opportunities for children to practice self regulation skills. Research shows that children who practice those skills in music and movement classes show better self regulation than those children who were not enrolled in the class.
Making sense of the world
Music is also a way to explore difficult emotions and make sense of the world. If you go back to the lyrics of some songs you learned as a child, they may seem strange at first.
“There was an old lady who swallowed a fly…perhaps she’ll die.”
“It’s raining, it’s pouring, the old man is snoring. Went to bed, bumped his head, didn’t get up in the morning”
And of course, “Ring around the Rosie…Ashes, ashes, we all fall down.”
Children are drawn towards songs and games that help them act out, explore, and then manage their feelings. These often include things they are afraid of, or rules that they don’t fully understand. Musical games are a healthy way for children to explore concepts of fear and safety, right and wrong, and cause and effect.
Bringing Music Home
The most important message we have to share about music in early childhood is to just do it.
Whatever makes you most likely to bring music into your home and engage with your child through music, do that! For you, that might mean investing in some bluetooth speakers and streaming songs that you sing along with, keeping your guitar in the living room instead of in a case under your bed, or signing up for early childhood family music classes in your community.
If the thought of singing out loud scares the bejeezus out of you, try this: With your baby in your arms, put an ear bud in one ear, play a favorite song, and sing along to the recording. Your baby will hear just you, and the support from the recorded music will help you develop confidence in singing out loud. A wonderful resource designed to help parents/caregivers gain confidence singing out loud is Sing to Your Baby with music for both mom and dad in keys appropriate to their voices.
As you bring music into your home, here are some important takeaways:
- It is never too early. Infants can hear and respond to music even in the earliest days. Singing to infants increases their awareness, nurtures healthy bonds, and helps develop trust with the world around them. When sharing music with infants, be aware that they can become overstimulated. Consider the volume, tempo, and accompanying instruments, and adapt to your baby’s needs.
- Music is for everyone. Music is not something to be left to the professionals. You do not need to be a “natural” musician or a gifted singer to make music with your children. They will love hearing you sing because it is you. Infants will bond with your voice and not your favorite band or singer. Another important reason to be a part of the music making is that it will benefit you too! Adults also show decreased stress, improved mood, and improved social connections when they make music with others.
- Do it together. Passively listening to music is okay. But much better is interacting with your child together in music. Change up the words or tempo of some familiar songs, let your child pick an instrument or household item to keep the beat on, let them be the “conductor,” or ask silly questions between each verse. Music made together is best when it is centered around meaningful interaction.
- Incorporate all the senses. Music comes alive when it is paired with dancing, instruments, props, textures, and sights. Puppets, picture books, gestures, and movements will engage your whole child and increase the benefits.
- Take music with you. When music is a core part of your family’s life, you have something you can take anywhere. A special song can be sung every day when dropping children off at school to encourage them to do their best and remember your love and support. Songs can provide comfort or engagement during long rides or when waiting for appointments or meetings to start.